The term “intelligence” is derived from the Latin, “intellectus”, and is defined as “mind, powers of human thinking”. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, “intelligence” has many meanings:
- The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations: for example, the skilled use of reason or the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria
- Information concerning an enemy or possible enemy or an area; and an agency engaged in obtaining such information
- Mental acuteness
- The basic eternal quality of the Divine Mind (Christian Science)
- The ability to perform computer function
It makes sense to analyze the definition, “the ability to perform computer function”. At first glance, an executable computer program, which provides computer function (for example, calculation or text writing), doesn’t have intelligence. However, consider for a moment that “human or animal instinct”, is the inherent disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior. Based on our knowledge of computers, we can count “instinct” as a group of programs written on genetic material such as DNA
When a worker performs his tasks automatically, it means he has in his brain the “programs” necessary for automatic actions. In part, these programs were created by the special training he received to enable him to do his job. Congenital and acquired programs are all part of human intellect, or intelligence. It is the same for an executable computer program. The program bears a portion of the intellect of its creators, translated into a language (code) that the machine understands.
Therefore, an executable computer program has some intelligence. Modern computer systems that can, for example, choose an optimal decision, or make a rational analysis of external influences for this decision, are intelligent systems. This is the reason why AI is a powerful resource for solutions to a diverse range of problems (including those not formalized) for which there are currently no known solutions.
Historically, the term “intelligence” was connected with government organizations (agencies) devoted to the gathering of information for purposes of national security and defense, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in America. Today, this term has a broader meaning, with practical applications to real systems and products. AI methods include elements found in cybernetics, computer science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, operations research, economics, control theory, and math, among others. AI also connects and overlaps with such fields as robotics, control systems, scheduling, data mining, and logistics.
Artificial Intelligence Systems are the realization of artificial intelligence science. In other words, AI could be called, “Application of Artificial Intelligence”. The term, “AI” is also used to describe an intelligence property of new machines or programs. Many AI experts are predicting that by the middle of this century, intelligent machines will be all around us. Machines such as robots already touch our lives. Automobiles, electronic devices, and aircraft are assembled and tested with the help of various robotic machines. The reality that computers have saved the world from information explosion, while becoming affordable to students and other everyday users, is largely due to the use of intelligent machines. Just about all of the machines around us are rapidly becoming “intelligent”, with help of the intelligent applications. Revenues generated by the AI and robotic industries are now measured in the billions of dollars annually.
With the advanced computer-based systems used in traffic control or manufacturing control, it is reasonable to retain human ability to solve bottleneck problems in real time. Man-machine systems can exist with different levels of automation (from manual to autonomous), and Artificial intelligence systems can have different grades, from simple to very complex.
Today, many applications of Artificial Intelligence are present in industry, business, medicine, automobile navigation, communication, military operations, space exploration, and so on. The average person may have little or no knowledge of the current applications of AI, yet he encounters the results of AI many times every day. For example, the amazing functionality of everyday machines like a car, a sewing machine, kitchen appliances, and the Internet, or the quality of TV images, movies, and telephone communications are all a result of the Artificial Intelligence Systems being used in many common high-tech products.
AIS will most certainly become commonplace in the very near future, as the widespread use of these systems will bring more prosperity and enhanced well-being to the entire population of our planet. Intelligent automation systems, various advisory programs and robots can, and will, do the work that we either can not or desire not to do. Article is an excerpt from the book of the author ” Artificial Intelligence Around Us”, published by Bookstand Publishing